||“The Future Beckons: Emerging Treatment Challenges” by James Edzwald, Ph.D., P.E., Clarkson University, will begin the morning program with the symposium’s keynote address. From the 1880s to the 1960s conventional water treatment technologies were employed to control turbidity and bacterial diseases. From the 1970s to 2000 drinking water concerns became manifold: viruses, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, DBPs, TOC, pesticides, and other organic contaminants. Conventional technologies were optimized and new processes employed: GAC, ozone, UV disinfection, and advanced oxidation. Now and into the future we face concerns from TOC, DBPs, EDCs and other trace organics, harmful algae, nanoparticles, and oxyanions. Fresh water supplies are scarce in some areas requiring desalination. At the same time, there is a scarcity of university programs devoted to water supply, treatment, and water quality.
Learning Outcome: Upon completion of this segment, participants will be able to identify at least three drinking water concerns that helped shape drinking water treatment technologies from the 1970’s until 2000 and will continue to do so into the future.
“U.S. EPA Regulatory Update: Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Results, Legionnaire’s and Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs)” by Kevin Reilly and Denise Springborg, U.S. EPA New England forms the second segment of the morning symposium program. This segment will overview current U.S. EPA initiatives and inform participants about the newest EPA products. “Up-to-date results” of the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring data will be presented and a brief review of the revised guidance manual for Legionella will be discussed. This manual addresses the six technologies used to control Legionella in complex plumbing systems susceptible to stagnant areas within multi-story buildings and the effectiveness of these technologies. HABs will then be covered in a brief overview to effectively bridge to the next segment on cyanotoxin research. HABs are being acknowledged more frequently as a contaminant to be addressed by surface water systems, not simply as a taste and odor problem, but as a possible health issue. In response to this, U.S. EPA has begun a series of actions to further evaluate and address these concerns. A new guidance manual lists and describes the effectiveness of treatment strategies and monitoring of reservoirs using the most current information assembled on Cyanobacteria.
Learning Outcome: Upon completion of this segment, participants will be able to identify at least two options and two technologies used to control Legionella in complex plumbing systems.
“Current Water Research Foundation Initiatives in Cyanotoxin Research” by Jennifer Warner, Water Research Foundation, Denver, CO, represents the third morning program segment. Jennifer will highlight current research efforts to help utilities prepare for cyanobacterial blooms (also known as harmful algal blooms), develop practical monitoring methodologies, reliable analytical methods, cost-effective control strategies, and communication resources. Toxin-producing cyanobacterial blooms are a growing concern for water utilities that use surface water supplies monitoring practices.
Learning Outcome: Upon completion of this segment, participants will be able to identify at least two options to prepare for, monitor, control and communicate information about cyanotoxins.
“Cyanobacteria in New England Reservoirs: Is a 'Toledo Episode' Likely Here?” by Robert Kortmann, Ph.D., Ecosystem Consulting Service, Inc., represents the fourth segment of the morning program. Dr. Kortmann will provide perspective on water quality challenges from surface source water reservoir systems. The nature of Cyanobacteria will be described as well as environmental conditions that stimulate bloom development. The events that stimulated the Cyanobacteria bloom in western Lake Erie, impacting Toledo’s drinking water supply in 2014, will be examined and the potential for a similar event in New England Reservoirs discussed. The limnology of reservoir systems in New England, in series and parallel, diagnostic monitoring approaches, and a variety of management techniques to reduce Cyanobacteria and improve raw water quality will be described. Management techniques ranging from simple source system operational changes to in-reservoir apparatus systems will be exemplified by case studies conducted over the past 35 years.
Learning Outcome: Upon completion of this segment, participants will be able to identify at least two reservoir management techniques which can improve raw water quality and reduce cyanobacteria.
"Planning with Multiple Disinfectant Barriers for Simultaneous Compliance with the LT2ESWTR and the Stage 2 D/DBPR" by James Malley, Ph.D., P.E., University of New Hampshire is the final segment of the morning program. In this segment, Dr. Malley will review the tools available and highlight value of planning for and implementing multiple disinfectant barriers for simultaneous compliance with the LT2ESWTR and the Stage 2 D/DBPR.
Learning Outcome: Upon completion of this segment, participants will be able to identify two examples of simultaneous LT2ESWTR and Stage 2 D/DBPR compliance strategies.
“Emerging DBP Issues: Future DBP Regulation and Impact of Drought and Climate Change on DBP Speciation” by Philip Singer, Ph.D., P.E., BCEE, University of North Carolina opens the afternoon program with a segment examining different approaches for regulating DBPs in the future, such as TTHM (THM4), THM3, Br-THMs, and HAA9 vs. HAA5. Dr. Singer will also illustrate potential impacts of drought and climate change on DBP speciation.
Learning Outcome: Upon completion of this segment, participants will be able to identify which species of THMs are believed to pose the greatest health risk, and at least one way in which drought and climate change can impact DBP speciation.
“THM Reduction in Fall River, Massachusetts: A Case Study” by Terrance Sullivan, Utilities Director, City of Fall River (MA) and Donald Bunker, P.E., Associate, Stantec Consulting, forms the second segment of the afternoon program. The City of Fall River, MA evaluated potential changes to the City’s water system operating strategy and process modifications at the Fall River Water Treatment Plant to reduce THM concentrations in the distribution system. Chloramination was quickly ruled out as an option as a result of significant amounts of lead (IV) scales in the City’s distribution system. The use of aeration in the City’s Airport Road Tank was selected to locally reduce THM concentrations in the distribution system in the area that had previously experienced elevated THM levels. The purpose of this presentation it to outline the various options that the City evaluated to reduce distribution THM concentration and present advantages and disadvantages of each. Aeration as a means to reduce THMs will be discussed and operating data at the Airport Road tank will be presented.
Learning Outcome: Upon completion of this segment, participants will be able to identify one advantage and one disadvantage of using aeration to reduce distribution system THM concentrations.
“The Importance of Continuous Monitoring Systems in Day-to-Day Operations” constitutes the third section of the afternoon program. Presented by Betsy Reilley, Ph.D., Massachusetts Water Resources Authority, this segment will document continuous monitoring and its utility for detection of routine water quality changes. On-line analyzer data can be used to monitor for nitrification, turbidity events, and other occurrences, and these can be related to system maintenance or routine operations. Reviewing continuous water quality data will change how you understand your system.
Learning Outcome: Upon completion of this segment, participants will be able to identify how to interpret continuous data and relate it to system operations.
“Addressing Potential Health Effects of Elevated Manganese in Drinking Water” represents the closing segment of the afternoon program. A. Margaret Finn, P.E., and Paula Caron, P.E., Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (MA DEP) will review the department’s initiative in drinking water to address elevated levels of manganese. Recent research indicates that elevated levels of manganese may have adverse neurological effects, especially in infants. This segment will provide an overview of the statewide MA DEP program and its implementation on a regional level inclusive of the requirements. Learning Outcome: Upon completion of this segment, participants will be able to identify at least two health effects from elevated levels of manganese.